GO-42 was conceived as an anti-nuclear shelter for the first persons of the USSR, located in the very center of Moscow.
It was designed and built after the first series of nuclear tests by the Soviet Union. During these tests, it was found which design is most suitable for objects of this kind, because no state in the world has ever built such structures.
The optimal depth of the bunker was also determined – more than 50 meters. Nuclear weapons had just appeared, and the way in which it was possible to protect against their use could only be established empirically. A detailed report on these tests lay on the table of Joseph Stalin, the leader of the Soviet Union at that time. Having carefully studied it, Stalin signed an order on the construction of special. object.
The site for the construction – the Tagansky Hill area – was not chosen by chance – the bunker was supposed to be located near the Moscow Kremlin so that Stalin and the government could quickly get to it and exercise control over the state and the army in a nuclear war. On the shoulders of the builders lay an unbearable task, it seemed, – to build a huge structure in the center of Moscow without damaging the city’s communication systems, and most importantly, to keep the construction secret from the eyes of ordinary people and foreign intelligence services.
The work on the creation of the bunker was carried out by the best specialists of the Metrostroy administration, who presented Moscow with the most beautiful metro in the world. Each of the builders signed a special nondisclosure document.
Metro builders worked day and night, lifting soil and limestone up, lowering multi-ton cast iron parts down and assembling bunker structures from them. In 1956 the facility was put into operation. By that time, the political situation had changed, and a decision was made to place a Long-Range Aviation command post at the facility. For three decades, until 1986, command of strategic bombers carrying nuclear weapons on board was carried out from the bunker. However, the bunker, created in the realities of the 50s, could no longer withstand the new high-precision weapons.
Such an important object as the Long-Range Aviation Control Center had to be moved to a safer place. Just as the once mighty Kremlin, capable of repelling invaders’ invasions, has now become a historical monument, so our facility has opened its doors to guests. But to this day, special. the Bunker-42 facility has an equally important service. Every day people descend to a depth of 65 meters to touch that distant era when the world was on the brink of a nuclear war.